Indonesia policies in implementing the Paris Agreement’s 4 core aspects

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In order to celebrate the Earth Day every year on April 22nd, it is necessary for everyone around the world to take care of our earth’s environment with any kind of action, such as no littering anymore or holding social event of planting thousands of tree on each year. Even though those actions only give little impacts (positively), for all the people around the world to do so obviously eventually turn out as a big contribution to save our earth. Not only from the society, but the government in every country along with the international organizations also give their efforts on saving the earth from any kind of threat that could destroy the nature, for instances are the rise of pollution (e.g. air, water and sound pollution) or the climate change. One of the actions taken by the government around the world to solve those problems was by cooperating with other countries to sign in the Paris Agreement which was held on December 2015 and the second phase of the agreement on April 22nd, 2016. This agreement was organized by the United Nations through the UN Summit which attended by more than 140 countries around the world to solve the climate change issue which has becoming worst and brings negative impacts both for the nature and the world’s society. Even though it cannot solve all kind of environmentally-related problems, this agreement is hugely significant since it represents nearly every country in the world by saying that this is a big issue and they must do critical actions to decline the impact of the global warming and climate change. And one of those countries who involved is Indonesia.

After agreeing to involve and participate for solving the climate change issue through the Paris Agreement, the Indonesian government has considered that environmental security must be prioritized in one of the country’s national interests. And in order to achieve those interests, the government has been started to take out particular policies related to the issue in national/sub-national, regional and global scale.

As an archipelago country, Indonesia is considered as one of several countries in the world which is vulnerable for the climate change. It is caused by both of its geographic and demographic condition, where geographically Indonesia has wide coastal area, along with its vast marine and forestry ecosystems. Adding with its overcrowded population, it is possible that there will be an imbalance between its overcapacity population with limited natural resources availability in the future, which then making natural disasters to happen every year (e.g. the flood, forest fire and an earthquake) caused by high level of emission coming from the climate change. That is why it is necessary for Indonesia to involve on the Paris Agreement.

As for the further actions for the implementation of the Paris Agreement which then has been ratified on COP 21 by the UNFCCC in Paris on April 22nd last year, Indonesian government has taken out the country’s national interests and its policies related to the issue which must be prioritized from now on in order to achieve its emission reduction target and environmental degradation up to 2025. Those are also necessary in order to fulfil their efforts for applying several aspects or elements that comes from the agreement, where the elements are in terms of the mitigation, adaptation from loss and damage, funding/technology transfer/capacity building and transparency. Based on the statement coming from the Indonesian government through the country’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) official website, the national interests of the Republic of Indonesia related to the climate change issue in responding to the Paris Agreement are maintaining the country’s marine and forestry ecosystem preservation, giving support and efforts in terms of adaptation aspect which coming from the Paris Agreement related to the environmental situation in Indonesia that vulnerable with the climate change, developing the common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) and respective capabilities (RC) principles and also implementing Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation activities along with the sustainable forest management (REDD Plus) which considered as another incentive from the developed countries.

In order to achieve its national interests, the Indonesian government has taken out some policies in solving the issue which then supported by some programs which planned to be held in the future. In the national/sub-national scale, Indonesian government has taken out an emission reduction policy which means they will commit in reducing emission by 29% up to 2030 under the Business as Usual (BAU) and up to 41% with international support. This policy has been stated by the government of Indonesia in 2015 which then considered as part of the country’s NDC (Nationally Determined Contribution) by involving several sectors such as from the energy, agriculture, land-use, land-use change and forestry and also from waste sector. With the coordination of those sectors along with the involvement of non-state actors, the government also has planned to launch some programs related to the policy. The first program will be the Ownership and The Ministry, Local Government and Legislative Body Commitment Development Program. With this program, the local government and legislative bodies especially can pay more attention towards the regional economy, social and ecosystem rationality on each province and regency/city on every region in Indonesia, so they can guarantee that the emission reduction commitment also reflecting their commitment in developing the welfare of the society. Then there will be also enabling environment program, where this program will be divided into several parts such as strengthening the institutional bodies in order to manage the watershed (DAS), the strategic environmental assessment (KLHS), the national energy policy (KEN), the electricity procurement business plan (RUPTL), the General Planning for National Energy (RUEN), the regional energy plans (RUED) and the preparation of Indonesia’s National Strategy for Sustainable Development. The next one if capacity development program where it will be focusing more on strengthening the institution bodies and human resources capacity for instance is calculating the sectoral/regional emission level. And the last one is Emission of Greenhouse Gasses One Data Policy Program where all of the data and information related to the problem must be arranged, collected and communicated with some parties which are managed centrally and singularly.

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Specifically, Indonesian government also has started to give priority in reducing the emission in agriculture and forestry sectors by conducting peat management mitigation efforts. Aside from that, the government also will try to extend the moratorium policy which covering not only the primary forests and peatlands but also secondary forests.

While on bilateral and regional scales, Indonesia also has conducted bilateral cooperation with several countries in energy sector (both from the state and non-state actors) such as with the United States, European countries and other ASEAN countries in emission reduction cause by the climate change. From the United States, the government of both countries has established executive (entrepreneurs) exchange program which sponsored by the USAID as part of their support in developing renewable energy in Indonesia as part of the solution in reducing the emission from climate change. Besides the US, the French government also showed its support on the policy by signing several business agreements between entrepreneurs from both countries in terms of business cooperation for improving renewable energy sector in Indonesia. There was also an agreement that had been signed and dealt by French government and 40 businessmen on their commitment to plant their investment at least US$2.6 billion or Rp34.5 trillion, where part of it goes for renewable energy sector. The agreement was made during state visit of French President Francois Hollande to Indonesia on Wednesday, March 29th 2017. As from the UK, its prime minister and Indonesian government had made a cooperation in conducting a research about renewable energy resources by providing financial aid around 14.5 million pound sterling or Rp250 billion for the research itself. The research would involve some of Indonesia’s famed universities and institutions (e.g. ITB, IPB, University of Indonesia and Padjajaran University) along with several famed colleges in England like the Oxford University. Then, another opportunity to support Indonesia’s renewable energy policy was coming from Swedish government. The government of both countries has made a deal to sign MoU in developing renewable energy business sector in Indonesia, mainly in terms of hydropower and wind energy resources. The implementation of both countries’ cooperation could be seen from the construction of biogas-fueled power (PLTBg) plants in 2015 which located in Palu, South Sulawesi. While on the regional scale, Indonesia has been showing its involvement on solving the climate change issue by participating and becomes a member of ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze with the purpose is to solve the forest fire issue.

And on the global scale, the president of the Republic of Indonesia together with the president of United States, the French president, Indian prime minister and the leader from other 16 countries in the world has cooperated in launching Mission Innovation which considered as part of their global partnership platform which also has been supported by 19 countries in order to encourage the development of clean energy initiative.

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Future outlook for Indonesia’s defense posture

As we know, based on the drivers of Indonesia’s defense modernization started from 2010 until recent years, the focus of military forces that coming from Indonesia itself mostly just focusing more on the internal threats rather than doing its expansion towards external security threats, especially for Indonesia naval forces. This low levels of readiness and professionalism should have to be changed, since with this globalization era, the risks and threats that are coming towards almost all countries around the world has been shifted from traditional security threats which usually are coming from both military and political aspects into non-traditional security (NTS) threats externally which are coming from environmental, societal, health and even maritime aspects that usually challenging each country’s exclusive economic zone areas (EEZ) especially in Indonesia, for instance are illegal fishing, piracy, people smuggling and drug trafficking. That is why in order to face this, Indonesia should need to replace its military performs which still based on Cold War era military platforms in all services because mostly its military forces (mainly for Indonesian armies) still focusing more on domestic security to save the prosperity of Indonesian society in all aspects (e.g. combating Islamist terrorism or ethnic violence, and insurgency in Papua) without increasing its awareness to involve also on those external security threats which obviously will give big impacts on both its national security and national sovereignty. Another reason for Indonesia to change the platform is because of its weakness in both military equipments and military operations (such as logistics, command and control, and C4ISR stands for command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance systems) along with its slow development in military industrial base, mostly towards Indonesia’s navies and air forces.[1] It can be seen in 2004, when Indonesia started to develop in its economic growth which focusing more on purchasing military equipments that mostly being used for the armies (TNI AD) because they are still categorized as the “backbone” for Indonesia’s defense in order to counter those internal threats that disturbing its national security, while in reality with the shifting for the existences of threat that coming to Indonesia today are mostly from the external ones (especially in maritime security aspect). Thus, with the awareness of these kind of threats, Indonesia started to implement the capability of naval forces through the growing procurement emphasis towards the Navy. Those military equipments can be seen in 2005-2007, where Indonesia purchased four Landing Platform Dock (LPD) from South Korea, four SIGMA Corvettes from Netherlands in January 2008, four units of radars that had been purchased during the period of 2005-2009 and planned to procure more four radars from 2010 until 2014, and purchased around 96 patrol vessels in early January 2010 in order strengthen border security and preventing illegal fishing within its territorial boundaries.[2] This is a proof that Indonesia is beginning to aware about its crucial position geographically that sits right at Southeast Asia’s maritime chokepoints such as Malacca Strait which indirectly stated that it should have to take its external security environment more seriously by protecting its islands, the coastline and those three land borders (Timor-Leste, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea).

Based on the background for the development of Indonesia’s military forces, especially for the navies, during SBY’s authorization in 2009 he started to boost Indonesia’s defense spending up to 1.5 percent of GDP that being responded positively by its Ministry of Defense in order to implement its strategic planning for achieving Minimum Essential Force (MEF) posture until 2024.[3] Minimum Essential Force is an Indonesia’s defense posture that contains on the set of revitalization program and military modernization as what had been mentioned before. The program itself runs in the three phases, where the first phase is from 2009-2014, second phase from 2015 until 2019 and the last phase is from 2020-2024. This defense posture called as minimum essential force means that with the modernization of those military equipments, it can be used to defense (conducting minimum force) without doing offensive actions or giving attacks in its territory and sovereignty in order to keep the unity of Republic of Indonesia. [4]

This Minimum Essential Forces posture is considered as a form of Indonesia’s defense system that being made constructively based on its geostrategic concept as an archipelago country based on Republic of Indonesia’s Law number 3 in 2002 about State’s Defense system which stated that Indonesia’s defense system should have to be established constructively based on its geographical condition as an archipelago country, while the concept of national defense itself can be implemented by prioritizing on the layer defense concept that defines as a defense concept which based on the combination of both military and non-military layer defense systems in order to tackle down and preventing both military and non-military threats (externally and internally) that coming towards the country. Strategy that should have to be conducted in order to support its water defense has been defined based on the concept of Nusantara’s Water Defense Strategy (SPLN) which consists of Deterrence Strategy (conducted through diplomacy between the navies and the development of Indonesia’s navy forces), Layer Defense Strategy (being implemented during war time by prioritizing all of maritime’s component forces through joint operations with Indonesia’s air forces) and Sea Control Strategy (being implemented for preventing the external enemies from using Indonesia’s sea that still categorized as its territorial sovereignty illegally.[5] However, despite on those strategies that still being conducted by Indonesian navies in order to achieve MEF defense posture, there are some problems that still being unsolved within the operations of MEF itself. It can be seen from the meaning behind MEF first. As for the term of minimum itself, it is coming from the economical aspect where the budget for providing those military equipments should have to be limited due to its government’s focus on the development program such as in health sector, since in reality the price for security of invasion, spying and sabotage are very expensive rather than other sectors. Based on the calculation, in order to achieve this posture Indonesia needs to spend around more than Rp332 billion totally for those three military forces (Armies, Navies and Air Forces). However, there are some disparities that coming between the applications of this defense posture with the ends that Indonesia wants to achieve on. And one of these disparities is coming in both economic and military aspects. Even though Indonesia’s economic growth started to increase from time to time, but based on the prediction that can be seen in the reality of Indonesia’s economic condition today, its economic development for the next fifteen years will just increase around 4 into 6 percents, even the use of the budget itself 90 percents mostly being used for subsidy, education program (each year it is counted around Rp200 billion) and for paying its foreign debt while 10 percents of the budget is usually used for its military defense.[6] This condition obviously will be hard for Indonesia to maintain and even increasing its military forces (mainly in naval forces) in order to achieve this defense posture where during that time the need for Indonesian navies on the military equipments to counter those external threats also will increase as well, and eventually there will be no balance between the proposal of military equipments and defense budget they need with the real budget that they get each year. As for the military equipments that Indonesian navy needs, even though the weapon system of those equipments still can be used quite effectively, there are some that had been expired based on its economic value, which means that those military equipments should have to be replaced with the new ones, for instance is on Indonesia’s submarines.

Based on those explanations, on my perspective personally, the strategic planning to achieve MEF especially in the naval forces will never been as effective as what had been expected. We can take a look on the basic problem that is coming from economic growth of Indonesia. Generally, the development of state’s military capacity and capability will occur if its economic growth runs well (by balancing the use of state’s budget between military and other aspects) since the development of both economic and military aspects within a country usually should have to go hand in hand. And this is what Indonesia should have to do, because the implementation of minimum force in terms of the use of state’s budget to conduct modern militarization by limiting the military budget itself is considered as non-logistical actions. Of course it will affect Indonesia’s role as a key player in maritime domain power in ASEAN. That is why in order to solve this, the government should rethink back again on the application of MEF especially for naval forces by focusing more the use of its budget towards military aspect for increasing the measure of its advance military equipments to replace the old ones by purchasing more those equipments on the indigenous military industries instead of increasing its dependencies by procuring more the foreign military ones. And then with the effectiveness of its means, Indonesia can achieve its national interests (its ends) and on the same protecting its national security which focusing more on the external threats in NTS that still be considered as Indonesia’s territorial sovereignty in order to be an active player in ASEAN Maritime Forum that as a part of ASEAN Political Security Community because of its operations on the use of its advance military instruments for maintaining stability of the security of Southeast Asia region along with other ASEAN members.[7]

References :

[1] Schreer, Benjamin. 2013. STRATEGY : Moving Beyond Ambitions? Indonesia’s Military Modernization. Australia : ASPI. pg 12.

[2] Sukma, Rizal. Indonesia’s Security Outlook, Defense Policy and Regional Cooperation. pg 16.

[3] 2012. Revitalizing Indonesia’s Defense Industrial Base : Agenda for Future Action. RSIS Policy Report. pg 2.

[4]The Urgency of Minimum Essential Force” in http://indonesiadefenseanalysis.blogspot.com/2014/08/the-urgency-of-minimum-essential-force.html, accessed on January 15th, 2015

[5]Konsep dan Strategi Pertahanan Negara di Laut dalam Menghadapi Ancaman Militer di dan/atau lewat Laut sebagai bagian dari Fungsi Penangkalan” in https://www.academia.edu/6978822/KONSEP_DAN_STRATEGI_PERTAHANAN_NEGARA_DI_LAUT_DALAM_MENGHADAPI_ANCAMAN_MILITER_DI_DAN_ATAU_LEWAT_LAUT_SEBAGAI_BAGIAN_DARI_FUNGSI_PENANGKALAN, accessed on January 15th, 2015. pg 2,3,4.

[6]PEMBANGUNAN KEKUATAN TNI ANGKATAN LAUT: ANTISIPASI DISPARITAS ENDS DENGAN MEANS” in http://www.fkpmaritim.org/pembangunan-kekuatan-tni-angkatan-laut-antisipasi-disparitas-ends-dengan-means-2/, accessed on January 15th, 2015

[7]Moeldoko Minta TNI AL Bikin Sekenario Modernisasi Alutsista” in http://www.tribunnews.com/nasional/2015/01/06/moeldoko-minta-tni-al-bikin-sekenario-modernisasi-alutsista, accessed on January 15th, 2015

Eco-friendly products made by Indonesian youth that worth to be proud of

Let’s forget for a while about what happens in our political and legal system in our country. Apparently we also still have another issue which is not being solved yet in terms of our country’s environmental condition, mainly about plastic waste issue that still spread over the sea. Not to forget also with the increasing of people who use fossil fuels’ cars and bikes that resulting on a high level of air pollution. With the situation it won’t impossible that climate change will keep affecting our earth and back again will bring negative impacts for people’s healthcare. That is why some developed countries have started to keep giving innovation and new ideas in creating eco-friendly goods or products which also bring positive impacts on the public’s healthcare system for those who use it. Not only overseas, we also could find those kind of products in Indonesia which made by the local people. Especially with recent issue that happens nowadays about the fish contamination on the sea because of plastic waste pollution caused by both the public and government’s failure in managing plastic waste which scattered across the rivers or sea on some places. Based on the research from Jenna Jambeck, in every year there is at least 187.2 million tons of plastic waste spread over or in the sea, thus making Indonesia categorized as the second largest country with high amount of plastic waste in the sea. With Indonesia’s environmental condition which becoming worst over the year, it encourages the country’s youth inspired to invent new ideas by producing eco-friendly household products or transportation. Here shows the eco-friendly goods or products made by Indonesian youths that worth to be proud of :

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  1. Eco-friendly plastic bag made from the shrimp shells invented by a high schoolgirl

The new idea to create a plastic bag from the shrimp shells has been successfully tested and ready to use by a high schoolgirl from Kharisma Bangsa High School in South Tangerang. The research about the use of plastic bag from the shrimp shells by this young girl has been started since on August 2013 and January 2014, which then she tried to enhance of the research again at Indonesian Technology Institute (ITI) and developed it once more when she joined a student exchange program in China. She said that the procedure in making the plastic bag started with collecting the shrimp or crab shells first and then blending it, where as we know that its shells contains of chitin substance that has synthetic polymer materials. After that, the shells that has been blended mixed with an eco-friendly chemicals and dry them until it changes into powder. Then, she mixed the powder with the tapioca starch that comes from palm trees until it becomes solid solution. Afterward pour the solution into the mold and wait for the result for one day. Even though this plastic bag only could bring dry materials, it still considered as one of eco-friendly products since it an decompose inside the topsoil for 45 days and for 60 days inside the laterite in compares with the non-ecofriendly ones which can decompose inside the soil for dozen years.

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  1. Energy Bike, a solar energy bicycle made by a college student from ITSB Institute

Two years ago, one college student from Bandung Technology and Science Institute (ITSB) has been succeed in creating a bicycle that using solar energy as its power alternative, which then called as Energy Bike. By spending his money around more than five millions rupiah, this college student tried to run his project for one year. This bike was invented by using aluminium materials with green sporty atmosphere and designed the same with the toy scooter. While inside the bike contains of a battery with power around 12 volt and a controller. It also used solar cell poly crystalline-type technology concept in order to absorb the solar power as its power source. The solar cell also has another function to connect the bike with its battery thus make it easier for those who ride it to charge the battery, which is only by putting the bike under the sunlight for five hours. This Energy Bike can run with speeds up to 20 kilometers per hour and maximum travelled distance around 40 kilometers.

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  1. Thermoelectric Air Conditioner (ACT) prototype made by college students from ITS

Four college students from Sepuluh Nopember Technology Institute (ITS) also succeed in creating an eco-friendly air conditioner called as thermoelectric air conditioner (ACT). By applying thermoelectric technology concept to create a new kind of air conditioner (where this kind of technology had been invented on other electronic devices such as mini fridge and thermoelectric generator), they thrive on using the concept to replace chloro fluoro carbon (CFC) that usually used on the “usual” air conditioner inside the new kind ones so it will not damage the ozone layer and can reduce the effect of the climate change. Aside from that, ACT also can save power electricity because it only requires of 300 watt comparing with the “usual” AC which requires electricity power up to 1,000 watt

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  1. Cutler Eat produced by college students from i3L

An eco-friendly plastic spoon or called as Cutler Eat has been succeeded to be made of by eight college students from Indonesia International Institute for Life Science (i3L). This type of spoon also save to be eaten by us due to its substances that contain of wheat flour, rice and buckwheat. Even though it was being made from flour materials, the Cutler Eat won’t crush and can stand inside the cold water for 30 minutes and inside hot water for 15 minutes. Apparently, this spoon also has expiration date up to two years if it was stored inside the package.

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  1. Constinople-Eco Family Shoes made by a young entrepreneur from Bandung

A young shoes entrepreneur from Bandung, West Java has become a successful entrepreneur in developing his business by creating eco-friendly shoes for family which called as Constinople-Eco Family Shoes. With its 100 percent handmade productions and its eco-friendly basic materials (made from natural fibers such as cotton, hempen and coco fiber), it made this young businessman to gain huge amount of profits coming from selling this new type of shoes. He succeed to get business profit up to ten of millions rupiah per month with the shoes’ selling price range from 80 thousands until one million rupiah (the price for women shoes which made from silk)

Supports and challenges in implementing renewable energy policy in Indonesia

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Nowadays the discussion of the implementation of renewable energy policy in Indonesia has become the main topic, whether from the government and business investors as well as from the society. As we know, in compare with other countries, Indonesia has abundant renewable energy resources such as biofuel, biomass, geothermal, hydropower, wind, solar energy, the tide, tidal energy and nuclear. Even though the percentage of people who use renewable energy still not as high as those who use fossil fuels (e.g. coal, oil and gas), the government keep making decisive efforts to increase the potential of available energy resources in achieving its national interests in energy sector. Indonesia’s national interests about the implementation of renewable energy policy has been stated in the General Planning for National Energy (RUEN) which saying that renewable energy resources should account for at least 22.5% of the country’s total energy consumption in 2025. This statement also had been set up by the state-owned electricity firm PT PLN’s latest electricity procurement business plan (RUPTL), spanning from 2017 to 2026. Therefore it is really necessary for the government to cooperate together both with the local and foreign investors in “converting” several crucial spots in Indonesia to become renewable energy resources, mainly from its forests.

Initially, the government prefers to prioritize their decision first in improving the use of geothermal energy to become the country’s main renewable energy resources, where based on the research Indonesia has massive potential in geothermal reserves in almost 330 fields across the nation that estimated could produce electricity 28,617 megawatts, due to its strategic location which sitting on the ring of fire. Most of the field are coming from the conservation forest, protected forest and production forest. Thus it is really important for the government to preserve the forest in order to create an opportunity for them in establishing a green economy for the society that will determine its national economic growth in the future.

The development of Sarulla geothermal power plant project (PLTP) in North Tapanuli, North Sumatra could be seen as a sample of Indonesian government support for implementing its renewable energy policy. This project has been supported initially by Indonesian House of Representative members (DPR). Another form of the government support for the policy coming from the agreement with the French government in signing COP21, United Nations climate conference in Paris, which means that Indonesia also will be responsible in creating an eco-friendly energy resources. Aside from that, the government also has made a deal to sign an agreement to cooperate in supporting the use of the country’s geothermal reserves as part of its renewable energy resources during the Senior Official Meeting (SOM) in DPR. The meeting was attended by Energy and Mineral Resources Minister, Finance Minister, Environment and Forestry Minister, Research, Technology and Higher Education Minister, State Minister for State Owned Enterprises and Head of State Minister for Chairperson of the National Development Planning Agency.

While from the foreign investors, with the approval and cooperation from Indonesian government, so far most of them who are coming from energy sector has expanded their business in supporting the development of Indonesia’s renewable energy policy. From US, the government of both countries has established executive (entrepreneurs) exchange program which sponsored by the USAID as part of their support. Besides the US, the French government also showed its support on the policy by signing several business agreements between entrepreneurs from both countries in terms of business cooperation for improving renewable energy sector in Indonesia. There was also an agreement that had been signed and dealt by French government and 40 businessmen on their commitment to plant their investment at least US$2.6 billion or Rp34.5 trillion, where part of it goes for renewable energy sector. The agreement was made during state visit of French President Francois Hollande to Indonesia on Wednesday, March 29th 2017. As from the UK, its prime minister and Indonesian government had made a cooperation in conducting a research about renewable energy resources by providing financial aid around 14.5 million pound sterling or Rp250 billion for the research itself. The research would involve some of Indonesia’s famed universities and institutions (e.g. ITB, IPB, University of Indonesia and Padjajaran University) along with several famed colleges in England like the Oxford University. Then, another opportunity to support Indonesia’s renewable energy policy was coming from Swedish government. The government of both countries has made a deal to sign MoU in developing renewable energy business sector in Indonesia, mainly in terms of hydropower and wind energy resources. The implementation of both countries’ cooperation could be seen from the construction of biogas-fueled power (PLTBg) plants in 2015 which located in Palu, South Sulawesi.

Even though the implementation of Indonesia’s renewable energy policy has been supported by both the government and business investors, there are also several challenges faced by both parties that will prevent them in achieving the goals. Most of those challenges are coming from the financial support, land acquisition, the government permission process and standardization of renewable energy power price. In here, the main problem where still not being solved yet in terms of the use of renewable energy power price. Based on the Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry Regulation (Permen) No. 12/2017, it stipulated that the maximum tariff for electricity that generated from solar, wind, hydropower, biomass, biogas, waste and geothermal energy must be at least 85 percent from the basic cost of production (BPP) in purpose to reduce the power price that going to be purchased by public society. However, the result of the decree is not what had been expected. Instead, it only made the state-owned electricity firm PT PLN and public society to purchase the electricity price from those who developed the energy production with a high price. The situation happened due to the worst condition of several places in the country that mostly located in remoted areas and insufficient transportation facilities, which made it difficult to distribute the power electricity. After what had happened there are several parties who asked for the government to revise the regulation in order to prevent the investor’s discouragement on the investment in renewable energy and also preparing another incentive for those investors.

Perkembangan perusahaan industri bidang e-commerce di Indonesia

Seperti yang kita ketahui, pertumbuhan penduduk dapat dikategorikan sebagai faktor paling penting untuk menentukan apakah negara tersebut adalah negara yang miskin, berkembang atau maju. Hal tersebut sesuai dengan ketetapan dari Lembaga Organisasi PBB yang mengurus masalah mengenai kependudukan yaitu UNICEF. Sedangkan faktor-faktor penting lainnya yaitu dapat kita lihat dari segi pendapatan per kapita, pertumbuhan penduduk dan angka rata-rata kelangsungan hidup. Melihat pentingnya pertumbuhan penduduk sebagai faktor penentu suatu negara bisa diklasifikasikan sebagai negara berkembang ataupun maju, maka diperlukannya pengumpulan data mengenai jumlah populasi (baik secara umum maupun dengan dilakukannya perbandingan antara populasi penduduk daerah perkampungan dengan perkotaan), perkembangan penyebaran penduduk, dan jumlah penduduk yang berusia masih layak untuk bekerja berdasarkan gender hingga perkembangan salary gap yang masih terjadi hingga saat ini di Indonesia. Indikator-indikator tersebut bisa dijadikan sebagai patokan bagi para investor usaha baik dari dalam maupun luar negeri untuk mengembangkan bisnis mereka, terutama untuk bidang e-commerce yang saat ini menjadi trend usaha banyak dilakukan pebisnis sekarang. Jika kita lihat dari segi populasi, tentunya dari tahun ke tahun jumlah penduduk di Indonesia semakin meningkat hingga ratusan juta jiwa. Berdasarkan pengumpulan data dari Badan Sensus Penduduk, jumlah pertumbuhan populasi di Indonesia pada akhir tahun 2000 yaitu sekitar 205,1 juta jiwa, dengan persentase populasi total yang ada di wilayah rural sekitar 58% dan wilayah perkotaan sekitar 42%. Kemudian pada akhir tahun 2010, jumlah penduduk di Indonesia meningkat menjadi 237,6 juta jiwa, dengan persentase populasi pada wilayah rural sekitar 50,21% dan wilayah perkotaan menjadi 49,79%. Setelah itu, pada tahun 2013 dan 2014, jumlah populasi Indonesia semakin bertambah menjadi 245,4 dan 248 juta jiwa.

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Dan berdasarkan pendataan terakhir dari BPS Indonesia, pada tahun 2016 jumlah populasinya semakin berkembang menjadi 252 juta jiwa. Dari data yang sudah disebutkan diatas, kita dapat melihat bahwa angka rata-rata kenaikan jumlah penduduk di Indonesia dalam tiap tahunnya yaitu sekitar 2,6 juta jiwa.

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Specification of Population in Rural and City Areas in Indonesia 2000 2010
Population in Rural Area (% of total population) 58% 42%
Population in the city (% of total population) 50,21% 49,79%

Akan tetapi, perkembangan jumlah penduduk tersebut tidak sebanding dengan pemerataan persebaran penduduk di setiap provinsi di Indonesia setiap tahunnya. Berdasarkan update dari BPS, persebaran penduduk di wilayah Sumatera dengan luas wilayah 25,2%  dihuni oleh 21,3% penduduk. Sedangkan wilayah Jawa yang luasnya 6,8% dihuni oleh 57,5% penduduk, dengan Kalimantan yang luasnya 28,5% dihuni oleh 5,8% penduduk, Sulawesi dengan luas 9,9% dihuni oleh 7,3% penduduk, Maluku yang luasnya 4,1% dihuni oleh 1,1% penduduk dan Papua yang luasnya 21,8% dihuni oleh 1,5% penduduk.

Kemudian, untuk jumlah penduduk usia kerja (15 tahun ke atas) hingga saat ini sebanyak 169 juta jiwa, dengan 84,3 juta untuk laki-laki dan 84,7 juta untuk perempuan, dimana rata-rata usia penduduk Indonesia yang masih aktif untuk bekerja adalah 28,6 tahun. Lalu rasio kesempatan kerja terhadap penduduk usia kerja antara laki-laki dan perempuan yaitu : pada tahun 2011 perbandingannya 78,32 : 45,34; tahun 2012 79,36 : 47,94; tahun 2013 78,35 : 47,04; tahun 2014 78,27 : 47,08. Dan indikator terakhir adalah berdasarkan tingkat kesenjangan upah berdasarkan gender (gender salary gap) selama 5 tahun belakangan ini yaitu : dari tahun 2011 sebanyak 0,218, tahun 2012 sebanyak 0,209, tahun 2013 sebanyak 0,216, tahun 2014 sebanyak 0,223.

Jika melihat perkembangan jumlah penduduk Indonesia saat ini, terutama dengan meningkatnya jumlah populasi penduduk dengan usia 15-64 tahun, kita dapat melihat adanya potensi untuk meningkatkan bisnis usaha di bidang e-commerce yang paling utama, melihat mayoritas masyarakat yang menjalankan bisnis ataupun menjadi customer pada usaha online (e-commerce) datangnya dari kalangan orang-orang muda dan dewasa (sekitar 15 tahun ke atas hingga usia 30 atau 40 tahun). Selama 5 tahun ini kita dapat melihat bahwa perkembangan bisnis e-commerce di Indonesia telah meningkat dan bahkan diprediksi akan berkembang tiga kali lipat menjadi US$25 miliar atau sekitar Rp295 triliun (dengan persentase pertumbuhannya sekitar 70 persen hingga 80 persen), berdasarkan hasil penelitian dari Asosiasi E-commerce Indonesia (Idea), Google Indonesia dan TNS (Taylor Nelson Sofres).

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Popular Brand Index of E-Commerce Companies in Indonesia

Kemajuan ini sudah diprediksi pada tahun 2013 dimana mereka telah memperlihatkan bahwa perkembangan bisnis usaha e-commerce di negara kita telah menuju arah yang lebih positif dengan nilai transaksi e-commerce mencapai angka Rp130 triliun dan nilai pasar yang mencapai US$8 miliar atau sekitar Rp94,5 triliun. Angka nilai pasar ini bahkan sudah melampaui Singapura dan Thailand, sehingga dikategorikan sebagai negara yang memiliki nilai pasar e-commerce terbesar di kawasan ASEAN. Hal ini tentu dipicu oleh berkembang pesatnya teknologi digital yang ada di Indonesia sehingga pengguna internet pun semakin banyak (terutama dikalangan anak muda dan orang dewasa) yang mencapai hingga 82 juta orang atau sekitar 30% dari total penduduk Indonesia. Dengan semakin besarnya potensi perkembangan e-commerce di Indonesia membuat para investor asing berani untuk menanamkan modal dengan jumlah yang besar terhadap beberapa perusahaan e-commerce terkenal yang berbasis di Indonesia, contohnya seperti institusi keuangan asal Jepang SoftBank Corp. Dan sequoia Capital yang menanamkan modalnya sebesar US$100 juta kepada Tokopedia dan Venture Capital (VC) besar Rocket Internet yang menyuntikkan dana sebesar US$250 juta kepada situs belanja online Lazada dan Zalora. Perusahaan asing lainnya yang banyak menanamkan modal kepada perusahaan e-commerce Indonesia lainnya (seperti Berrybenka, Bilna, Saqina, VIP Plaza, dan Ralali) yaitu datang dari CyberAgent, East Ventures dan IdeoSource.

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Rocket Internet Investments towards several E-commerce Companies in Indonesia

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Top 10 Indonesian E-Commerce Companies with high market value in 2016
Source : webstatsdomain.org

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Top 10 E-Commerce Companies in Indonesia from 2013 until 2015
Source : Nielsen Advertising Information Services (AIS) 2011-2015

Walaupun potensi bisnis e-commerce di Indonesia sudah semakin kuat, masih ada beberapa masalah yang menghambat pertumbuhan konsumen yang melakukan kegiatan berbelanja melalui online, sehingga perkembangan usaha bidang e-commerce ini masih rendah jika dibandingkan dengan Amerika Serikat dan Tiongkok. DBS Group Research menyatakan bahwa persoalan-persoalan yang menjadi hambatan tersebut adalah masih adanya ketidakpercayaan masyarakat untuk belanja melalui situs online karena citra belanja online yang terkadang suka menipu. Masalah kedua adalah belum merebaknya budaya berbelanja secara online dengan alasan karena tidak bisa mencoba produknya terlebih dahulu sebelum dibeli dan belum banyak orang yang tahu cara system pembayaran secara online. Sedangkan masalah selanjutnya datang dari kendala pada bagian logistik dan distribusi karena kondisi infrastruktur yang kurang maksimum, terutama untuk tujuan daerah-daerah terpencil. Kendala lain yaitu akses internetnya yang masih belum merata, dimana penetrasi jaringan internet tertinggi di Indonesia hanya ada pada 3 provinsi, yaitu Yogyakarta (47%), Jakarta (42,8%) dan Bali (41,6%). Namun saat ini beberapa kendala tersebut sudah bisa diatasi, salah satunya yaitu dengan adanya kerjasama dengan jasa pengiriman barang sehingga dapat membuka sekurang-kurangnya 400 titik cash on delivery (COD) dari Sabang sampai Merauke.

Berikut adalah tabel estimasi penjualan e-commerce B2C (business to consumer) pada beberapa negara Asia sebagai perbandingan dengan Indonesia dari tahun 2013 hingga 2016 berdasarkan data dari Wall Street Journal. Walaupun perkembangan bisnis e-commerce di Indonesia masih lebih rendah dibandingkan negara-negara Asia lainnya, namun melihat perkembangannya yang semakin pesat dari tahun ke tahun tidak mustahil bagi Indonesia untuk bisa bersaing melampaui negara ASEAN bahkan Asia lainnya untuk 5 atau 10 tahun yang akan datang.

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References

 

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Wulandari, D. (2015, August 20). Marcomm Media. Retrieved from mix marcomm: http://mix.co.id/brand-communication/advertising/belanja-iklan-jasa-layanan-online-tembus-rp-887-m-siapa-top-10-spender-nya