7 Cara Mengurangi Berat Badan sekaligus Membuat Kulit Menjadi Bersih dan Sehat

diet-plan-weight-lossSetiap orang pasti ingin memiliki tubuh yang ideal. Tidak mesti harus menjadi terlalu kurus asalkan tubuh tetap sehat dan bugar dalam melaksanakan aktivitas keseharian, terutama saat bekerja. Berbagai cara selalu kita lakukan agar memiliki bentuk badan yang langsing seperti seorang model, bahkan ada yang sampai melakukan cara ekstrim agar ukuran tubuh kita bisa berkurang secara cepat seperti sedot lemak atau melakukan operasi pada salah satu bagian tubuh kita. Dari pengalaman yang aku alami, untuk memiliki tubuh yang langsing dan bugar serta wajah yang terlihat awet muda, proses yang dialami memang memakan waktu yang sedikit lama dan tidak gampang. Namun jika kita melakukannya setiap hari dan tetap konsisten dalam menjalankan program dietnya, lama-kelamaan kita akan semakin terbiasa menjalankan rutinitas tersebut dan kita juga bisa berpikir jernih untuk belajar/bekerja. Berikut beberapa cara yang saya lakukan dalam menjalankan program diet yang juga bisa membuat kulit kita tetap sehat :

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  1. Rutin jogging atau lari pagi/sore

Memang kadang kita suka malas untuk melakukan kegiatan satu ini, apalagi selama libur sekolah/kerja, weekend atau sibuk bekerja sampai lembur. Tapi kalau kita punya niat kuat untuk mengurangi berat badan usahakan untuk rutin jogging atau lari pagi/sore setiap harinya di sela-sela waktu senggang. Kamu dapat melakukan jogging di pagi harinya sebelum berangkat sekolah/kerja sekitar 30-45 menit saja. Kalau kamu merasa malas untuk bangun pagi selama liburan, kamu juga bisa melakukannya di sore hari

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  1. Kurangi porsi makan

Buat kamu yang suka makan dengan porsi banyak, mulai sekarang coba dikurangi girls porsi makannya menjadi setengah dari biasanya kamu makan nasi. Itu kalau kamu kuat ya hehehe

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  1. Kurangi makanan yang mengandung banyak lemak/seafood dan perbanyak makan sayuran, buahan serta kandungan protein

Mungkin kita sudah banyak yang tahu kalau kebanyakan makan-makanan berlemak dan seafood tentu akan menambah berat badan kita. Disamping itu juga bisa mengganggu kesehatan tubuh kita, apalagi yang banyak mengandung kolestrol. Mulai sekarang coba kurangi makanan yang mengandung lemak/kolestrol dan banyak mengkonsumsi sayur-sayuran segar dan buah-buahan seperti mentimun, tomat, apel dan pisang. Dan jangan lupa juga untuk mengkonsumsi makanan yang mengandung protein serta daging sekali seminggu agar tubuh kita tidak lesu. Dan kalau kamu mau, kamu bisa juga memakan sayuran mentah yang memiliki sedikit kadar gula seperti wortel atau tomat (dijadikan sebagai manisan). Dengan sering mengkonsumsi sayuran/buahan, sudah pasti mengurangi jerawat di wajah kita dan kulit tetap sehat

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  1. Jadikan batas waktu untuk makan malam antara jam 5 sampai jam 7

Poin ini mungkin beberapa dari kamu sudah mendengarnya. Pastinya poin ini susah untuk dilakukan terutama untuk orang-orang yang kerja lembur. Tapi supaya kamu tetap ingin menjaga kesehatan tubuhmu, jadikanlah batas makan sore/malammu hingga jam 7 malam. Alasannya karena jika kita membiasakan diri untuk makan di atas jam 8 malam akan mengganggu sistem pencernaan kita, apalagi kalau setelah itu langsung tidur. Akibatnya sistem pencernaan menjadi tidak normal dan mengalami gejala sembelit dan tentunya juga bisa membuat badan kita menjadi gemuk

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  1. Jangan ngemil di malam hari dan ganti dengan banyak minum air putih

Lanjutan dari poin keempat tadi, selain makan makanan berat seperti nasi, memakan makanan ringan atau ngemil juga termasuk BIG NO! Sudah pasti ini akan membuat berat badanmu semakin bertambah dan dietmu jadi gagal total. Sebagai gantinya, cobalah banyak-banyak minum air putih setiap malam harinya untuk menghilangkan rasa lapar dan menghindari makan cemilan

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  1. Sempatkan diri untuk exercise seperti yoga

Untuk kamu yang malas nge-gym, kamu juga bisa melakukan beberapa gerakan exercise seperti plank, push up dan sit up atau yoga di kamar kamu sendiri selama 30 menit pada waktu senggang setiap harinya

Assorted Junk Food

  1. Jangan konsumsi junk food

Jangan lupa juga supaya membatasi memakan-makanan junk food. Dengan kadar lemak jenuh dan gula yang tinggi, makanan sejenins junk food bisa mengganggu kesehatan lambung dan jantung kita, juga membuat berat badan meningkat bahkan menimbulkan penyakit kanker

5 of Indonesian people characters/attitude that must be changed

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It has been common knowledge that the society who lives inside a country represents its characters which are different and more unique than the other society who live in other countries. Even though the best tourist destination or in terms of its abundant commodity could determine the appeal of a country, the characteristic or the manner of the society who lives inside a country also has the highest possibility in affecting the global public’s impression on them, either positively or negatively. We can take an example in Japan. Aside from its predicate as one of the most developed country in terms of its advanced technology, we also already know that it is well-known over the world with its people who mostly are friendly and kind towards each other, even though some of them are quite shy especially with their foreigner. In compare with American people, most of them tend to have outgoing personality, too daring and more straight-forward on giving out their opinions about other people. However, there are also some countries where the people are having bad manners which eventually making some foreigners feel uncomfortable and give them negative impression towards those people. For instance is in China mainland where most of Chinese people there are having no etiquette and more acting like “an uncivilized” person. Another example is like in Russia where some of the people there have quite unfriendly manner with foreigners and cold personality. Then what about Indonesian people? Even though the country also is being famous with its people’s outgoing personality, we cannot help that recently most of the society abroad already giving negative impressions towards Indonesian people for their bad manners which are already implanted in their mind as their habits until now. These are 5 Indonesian people’s negative characteristics/attitudes that must be changed from now on:

  1. Always trying to find out other people’s weakness in order to attack them both verbally or non-verbally

Thid kind of attitude has become the biggest trademark for Indonesian people. And sadly, not only between lower or middle class society, this type of behaviour also applied between the government and business people in order to have a chance in getting high position. The funny part is that most of Indonesian people tends to use social media to attack or bullying other people. It can be conducted in any form, starting by giving negative comments or status to show their dislike towards other people until provoking another person and creating an alliance to spread over their hatred towards certain person. These types of behaviour already included as part of cyberbullying. Based on the survey and research from Latitude News and Indonesian respondents, Indonesia is categorized as the country which has the second highest cyberbullying in the world, where 91% of those cases are taken place in social media, with 74% coming from Facebook and 44% coming from other media website. The reason why cyberbullying is quite famous in Indonesia because it is easier to attack their bullying victim in cyberspace instead on coming face to face with the victim

  1. Give up easily and tends to have no will to work harder or become more successful

Even though not all of Indonesian people possess this type of behaviour, it can’t be helped that mostly they don’t have any intention to improve their strong will to become more success, mainly in terms of doing a business. Thus it’s not surprising that the company business which are operated in several areas in Indonesia, particularly in several big cities like in Jakarta has been dominated by foreign investors instead of by the locals. Notably after the government has implemented its economic policy to ease all foreign businessmen on planting 100% of their capital investment towards 35 of business industries in Indonesia. Although this policy could improve their economic growth in competing with several countries in global market, on the same time it also will threaten the existence and development of the local business people, particularly for SMEs. Aside from the huge gap of the capital investment owned by both local and foreign investors, it couldn’t be avoided that they feel threatened because of their unwillingness to work harder to become more success and having low leadership capability which eventually trigger them to give up easily on taking high risk

  1. More complain, less work

This type of attitude also almost the same with the previous point, which mostly happening in doing school work or in the workplace. Based on the experience, most of Indonesian people tends to do the work which they feel easy to do and always give complain if they are given the hard one but with high expectation to get higher payments

  1. Have low respect on other people’s skills and their work

For this particular point, we can categorize this kind of behaviour as the second trademark for Indonesian people. As we know that there were several cases which some of Indonesian citizen (mostly from young people) who already succeed on inventing new scientific-related object or have over average skills in artwork as the representative of the country gained great appreciation from public society abroad. However ironically, when they came back to their own country they gained negative response and insults from Indonesian people. Even the government didn’t give their gratitude or appreciation for representing the nation. That’s why it’s also not surprising that they prefer to stay and live abroad to improve their skills instead of staying in Indonesia. And obviously with this “stupid attitude” of Indonesian people who never give respect for other people’s skills has brought great impact on public community abroad and lead them to have negative impression about Indonesian people

  1. Prefer to ignore the norm prevailing in the public community

The last point means that Indonesian people always tend to ignore the norms which have been applied in the public society. One of the example is a norm stating “no littering”. Even though it sounds trivial, we already knew that it will damage our environment greatly in the future. Based on the experience, we can still found some people who like to throw away their garbage on the road instead on the trash can, both from rural and urban people. Besides that, they also prefer to ignore the garbage which lay down beside them instead of throwing them in the garbage can. This kind of behaviour considered as a bad example and makes the foreigner who come there thinking that mostly Indonesian people don’t have intention to maintain the cleanliness of the environment

4 interesting facts why Samosir Island considered as one of the best tourist destination that must be visited by the tourists

Usually every time we plan to visit a tourist destination, it is really necessary to do a research on several important information and interesting/attracting things in one place with other places before deciding which one must be visited for eventually. Some of those information could be related to its geographical uniqueness, the tradition or customs embraced by the society who live there which are different from the other places or in terms of its strong mythical/mystical power which still being embraced by the resident of that place. And on this article, we will take Samosir Island as an example for the best tourist destination. Geographically, Samosir Island is located in the middle of Toba Lake, a large crater lake in northern part of Sumatera Island, Indonesia. This island is separated from the mainland of Sumatera Island. As we already know, Samosir Island is a large volcanic island that was formed after the eruption of a supervolcano that had happened around some 75000 years ago and located at 1000 meters above sea level. This island contains two smaller lakes, namely Sidihoni Lake and Aek Natonang Lake. Aside from its geographical uniqueness and the opulence of its tourist attractions, both Samosir Island and Toba Lake has become the best tourist destination for both the local and foreign travellers due to its strong mythical/mystical power which still being embraced by the resident inside the region until now. The points below show interesting facts that we can see on the tourist sites at Toba Lake and Samosir Island.

  1. Samosir Island has been found as the only island which located in the middle of a lake in Indonesia

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As what had been explained briefly before, Samosir Island has its own uniqueness in terms of its geographical location, where it is located in the middle of a large crater lake with 100 kilometres long, 30 kilometres wide and up to 505 metres deep that spread over seven regencies on the northern part of Sumatera Province.

  1. The tourist accommodation provided is using a one-hour ferry in order to go to the island

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Since it is located in the middle of a lake, it is necessary for the travellers to take a one-hour ferry to ride across the Toba Lake from the town of Parapat. The passenger ferry leaves from Tiga Raja harbor every hour between 8.30 and 19.00. For those running late there is an option to take the passenger boat from Aji bata to Tomok until 8.30 pm. A car ferry leaves the mainland from Ajibata and lands in the small town of Tomok, about a 10-minute drive from Tuktuk until 9 pm. There are also other passenger ferries and individual hotels may also have ferries available.

  1. Samosir Island is known as the heart of the Toba Batak culture

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It is already become common information especially for Toba Bataknese people. That is why if we are travelling to several places on the Samosir Island, we can find many of the Toba Batak traditional houses, its monuments and tombs spread across some villages on the island, especially in Ambarita village. Aside from that, this village also is known for its heritage sites during the King Sidabutar’s era that believed as the first person who set his foot on Samosir Island. That is why this island is considered as the best tourist destination also due to its exotic history and the vistas it offers

  1. With the strength of its mythical power that still being embraced by the resident inside the island, it is necessary for the travellers to follow “the dos and don’ts” on the place

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Even though almost all of the society who live on the island already kept up with the current developments, it doesn’t mean they must leave the tradition. More than half of the society who live on Samosir Island are keep sticking with the norms and follow the Batak Toba tradition which has been passed down by their ancestors in terms of the language, wedding ceremony tradition and even the customs of the deceased ceremony. Aside from that, even it is also important for them to keep doing “a certain tradition” that passed down from their ancestors into their descendants in order to make their lives turn into a success and free from “something preventing” them to have such live. They still believe with such myth since most of those Toba Bataknese people still feeling sure that the spirit of their ancestor still play big roles to take care of their lives, thus by doing a ritual called as “hamomion” is a must in order to make sure that their ancestor’s spirit can give their descendants’ lives into more prosperous

Explaining how CSR concept implemented in the business world

Today the implementation of business activities within a company has been extended not only related to the achievement of its own interests in terms of gaining economic profits internally, but also began to focus on the prosperity of its own employees along with their families and the other stakeholders of the company (e.g. the communities in the specific area where it operates its business activities or the society within a country in the large scale). The shift of the company’s decisions or policies on expanding its interests mainly comes into its idea as the proof in reflecting the company’s responsible actions towards its own employees along with their families and also for the sake of the society in a place where it operates its activities mainly that the company is not only exploiting their business activities in the home or host countries without paying more attention towards the societal and environmental situations that surrounding the company’s existences. And these kinds of actions in a business world are generally defined as Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) of the company itself.

There are so many perceptions in defining what CSR actually means for the company and also for the society or communities. Maignan & Farrel stated that CSR is a business acts in a socially responsible manner when its decisions and actions account for and balance diverse stakeholders interests (Maignan & Farrel, 2004). While the source coming from The WBCSD’s Journey, CSR defines as the commitment of business to contribute to sustainable economic development, working with employees, their families, the local community and society at larger to improve their quality of life. Then, European Commission also stated that CSR is considered as an important concept in doing business whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business operations and in their interactions with their stakeholders in a daily basis. Based on those statements that coming from several resources, it could be summarized that CSR defines as part of business activities conducting by companies to responsible more related to the economic, social and environmental aspects that surrounding the place where they operate those activities in order to improve economic growth of the company (in terms of profits) and also as a form of their duties and responsibilities in protecting the condition where they operate in terms of sectors mentioned above by working together with the government of that place/country for achieving not only the company’s interests, but also towards their diverse stakeholders’ interests (including the government themselves).

The implementation of CSR definitions or conceptions can be seen on several elements it has on. Based on several references, it could be concluded that the element CSR has consist of 7 parts, such as corporate governance (by working together with the government to improve the transparency of public information related on its business activities and on the same time has the government’s approval on expanding the company’s CSR operations within the country), community involvement (which means including the community or society’s involvements on conducting its CSR activities in that place to achieve both the society and the company’s interests), human rights (in terms of protecting the rights of the company’s employees or workers, the society and other stakeholders from the abuse or other criminal actions that against the law within the company and the place it is working on), environmental protection (to reduce the impact of global warming or climate change which caused mostly from the company itself by involving with the society to follow several programs related to the process of clean environment in several places or creating the project related to the reduction of gas emission), competition (making its CSR activities as the best one and could attract its stakeholders to make them trust enough for the company as a responsible company, and that way it can compete with several companies within that country or place), business ethics (in terms of introducing the company’s business ethics and business models or values to the community or society) and products and services (on the same time also promoting its best products and services to the community indirectly within the CSR operations and on the same time also could make the company to have innovations on creating new ones for attracting its customers within the country).

As the continuation of the concept of CSR itself, there must be several points that the company will gain from the activity itself, especially in terms of the benefits and profits it had gotten. Several important points in terms of benefits and profits the company could gain on CSR operations are satisfying the employee and its customers along with other stakeholders (means that employee feels proud of the company they work for and makes that person to not look the job elsewhere. The same will be happened for the customers on several people within a community, where with a strong record of the company’s CSR activities it will make them to like that company by buying more products or services and will be less willing to change another brand), costs reductions (if the CSR programs are being operated properly, it will reduce the costs instead of decreasing the money the company has by more efficient staff hire and retention, implementing energy savings programs, managing potential risks and liabilities more effectively and less investment in traditional advertising), become long term future in the company’s business activities (since CSR is not something for the short term, large companies usually refer to “shaping a more sustainable society” and that way the activities will last longer) and generate profits by doing innovations on its products (by sharing the company’s values and ethics model to the community through CSR programs, for instance is though developing the quality of its products with high level of the company’s innovations, it will increase the company profits for its workers).[1][2]

The samples of these benefits can be seen on the case within Walt Disney. The Walt Disney additionally owns the ESPN and ABC networks, holiday resorts and publishing businesses to name a few. The result is a lot of social and environmental impact, as well as the ability to influence a huge amount of people. Accordingly, the company has set themselves strict environmental targets and disclosure their figures in the Global Reporting Initiative which provides a comprehensive set of indicators covering the economic, environmental and ethical impacts of a company’s performance. By setting ambitious financial targets together with environmental performance targets may sound like an oxymoron, but Disney has managed to do this with initiatives such as running Disneyland trains on biodiesel made with cooking oil from the resort’s hotels. They also created the “Green standard” to engage and motivate employees in reducing their environmental impact when working, having meetings, travelling and eating lunch. With more than 600000 staff, the results are enormous when everyone is pulling in the same direction. While their CSR efforts may have taken a great deal of organization, dedication and investment, in 2012 was considered as a record year for Disney’s profits. Then, there will be more elaboration on the company spending on its CSR resources to achieve three important values, namely as a corporate philanthropy, as risk management and the last is as value creation.[3]

The first one is the corporate spending on CSR to create its value as corporate philanthropy. In the case of Microsoft Corporation, giving donations and skills through establishing several projects and programs in certain places considered as the application of the company’s internal culture. The reflection of the company’s objectives on spending CSR resources towards those programs (part of CSR as corporate philanthropy) can be seen on its belief that every people in the world can develop and grow, since potential of a person is nurtured, not predetermined. That is why in order to achieve them the company implements its teacher learning and education learning programs along with becoming volunteers through supporting its employees on creating Employee Giving or Employee Volunteers for developing individual’s or communities’ capability, knowledge and even improving the prosperity of the society around the world in terms of economic, health, education, environment and other aspects of their life. However, this value is still considered to have little strategic and operational impact, since the benefits that the company had gained not always sustainable, especially in terms of the profit that it had gained. As we know that this value is just focusing more on the prosperity of the society by keep raising the company’s workers money personally in every year. The evidence of this statement could be seen on the fact that since in 1983, through Microsoft Giving Program, approximately 200 of its workers (as the volunteer) had raised their money personally around $17000 for giving donations and implementing several programs related to its CSR purpose.[4] It eventually impacted on the company’s budget because they are mostly allocated only for giving charities to the society. Aside from that, this value also made the company’s competencies and other business assets not fully utilized.

Then, in terms of spending CSR resources to achieve its value as risk management, it could be seen that to manage the risks coming from the company (whether they are related to the case of corruption, scandals or environmental accidents) towards the society that it should have to get along for as its important customers in the country indeed is a very important part of corporate strategies. Even though the company had built its positive reputation in decades around the environment the company has been living, they could be ruined in hours just because of small accidents. These can also draw unwanted attention coming from the regulators, courts, governments and media. That is why by implementing the culture of “doing the right thing” within the company could resolve all of those problems in order to gain trust not only from the society, but also from their government. There are 4 elements that should have to be fulfilled within this value, such as “moral obligation” or duty to act responsibly as a good corporate citizens, “sustainability” which defined as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future to meet their own needs, the company’s needs for “license to operate” as implicit or explicit approval from the government, communities and stakeholders and the “reputation” where CSR of the company to improve its images, strengthen the brands and increasing its values.[5] In the case of Microsoft, we can see that mostly its CSR projects are in line with the development goals of India and its commitment to MDG. And as the prove of India’s government approval on improving the CSR works within the company, Microsoft started to do a corporation with its government regarding in digital inclusion by ensuring that the documents used within the government like laws, annual reports and others to be public consumption (transparent). Another fact where Microsoft started to be a company that the society can trust even until today is that IT in India becomes one of the most contributing industries with the existence of the company’s CSR learning projects and programs which improved the skills in IT or business related for reducing the unemployment rates and poverty within the country.

In terms of value creation, it could be seen that Microsoft has begun to spend its CSR resources mostly to implement its core value as technology company that always giving innovations on its products and services. This value also is considered as the compilation of those two previous values. The achievement of Microsoft’s purposes and objectives in becoming an innovative company and keep implementing sustainable business model to the community could be seen through its CSR programs that had been conducted in India. Several projects that it had invented is not only by giving charities and such, but instead it started to give learning and education programs to the society in India related to the technologies that it had invented previously, along with learning programs on how to become successful entrepreneurs in a business world by giving the basic knowledge first. Not only that, the company also invented new technologies specifically just for the countries and its people in order to make them as developed society in terms of technology and economic business by keep preserving their cultures like their native languages (e.g. implementing Project Basha to give them easy access about issues and problems happened around the world by using their native languages as part of the application of Microsoft’s multilingualism principle). With these implementations, the company can share its main value in terms of technology innovation and its internal business model towards the society as part of development of human capital within the country in order to promote its competitiveness with other companies (to prove that the company still could compete with other IT companies through implementation of its CSR ideas as value creation).

Then, there is explanation about the model of Corporate Governance in the company. Corporate Governance itself usually defines as the mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are being controlled and directed. By putting it in a specific way, corporate governance is a system where the company being directed and controlled by the representative from government bodies in terms of internal and external corporate structures in order to monitor the actions of management and directors, thus the risks that coming towards the company and all of its stakeholders could be mitigated. Usually the governance structures and principles identify the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation and including the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs. Historically, the appearance of corporate governance practices coming from what had happened in 2001, 2002 and in 2008, where there were so many cases of high – profile collapses of a number of large corporations due to the accounting fraud and also because of the experience of financial crisis during that period. In terms of corporate governance model itself, each country has different models according to the variety of capitalism in which they are embedded.[6] For some countries in Europe like in Germany and Netherlands, the model requires a two type Board of Directors as the means of improving the corporate governance itself, they are the Executive Board that comprise the company executives and generally runs day-to-day along with the Supervisory Board that contains of non-executive directors who represent shareholders and employees, hires and fires the members of the executive board, determines their compensation and reviews major business decisions. While in Italy, the model is applied in the absence of a different selection as per by the laws by dividing into two bodies such as an Administrative Body (a Sole Director of a Board of Directors whose number of members is chosen during the shareholders’ meeting, unless set in by the laws) and a Control Body (as the Board of Statutory Auditors).

The example is taken place on the corporate governance model in Gazprom Neft, the biggest Russian company in oil and gas industries. Even though this company is emphasizing agency theory within the structure (which seems to follow the Anglo-American corporate governance model), the primacy of shareholder rights is being mitigated. And instead it is increasing the importance of multiple stakeholders and institutional networks (e.g. banks as the prominent stakeholders) by using the governance model in both Germany and Japan.[7] The structure of the company’s governing bodies consists of The General Meeting of Shareholders (as the supreme governing body and covers the most important issues of Company business), The Board of Directors (exercises general and strategic management in order to increase the company’s shareholder value. It also monitors the work of the company’s executive management bodies to ensure such work is conducted efficiently; lead by Alexey Miller), The Management Board (a collegiate executive body that manages the company’s current business, lead by Alexander Dyukov) and The Chief Executive Officer (the company’s principle executive manager and acts as Chairman of the Management Board).[8]

The characteristics of CSR operations management and its business model reflected on the case of CSR activities in Samsung Electronics. Nowadays Samsung has supported the establishment of a CSR management structure by supplier companies and incorporated CSR activities as a part of its supplier evaluation criteria in order to further incentivize its participation in CSR activities. The CSR activity evaluation criteria consist of 20 different areas covering the EICC common code of conduct, including a ban on child labor, occupational health and safety and environmental management. The EICC recently had revised its code of conduct through collaboration with its stakeholders in order to strengthen member responsibility on CSR issues. The new code of conduct aside from what had been mentioned above includes a ban on use of conflict minerals (such as the case of child labor, sexual harassment and various human rights violations that occur in the mineral extraction process like what happened in Democratic Republic of Congo), compliance with privacy and information security laws. Thus, it can be described that the management system of Samsung Electronics based on Supplier CSR Evaluation Criteria divided into 4 parts, they are risk assessment and management of the Labor (e.g. voluntary employment, child labor avoidance, working hour and wage and welfare program), Ethics (in terms of Business Integrity), Health and Safety (e.g. emergency preparedness, occupational injury and illness, hazardous material management and protection of workers from hazard due to physically demanding tasks), along with Environment (e.g. international environmental management certification, safe management of hazardous substance, wastewater and solid waste management and air emissions management).[9]

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Figure 1 CSR Management Operations of Samsung Electronics

While in terms of business model of CSR activities in Samsung Electronics, there are 3 important points within the structure itself, they are the goals, CSR activities itself and the person who will get beneficiaries from those activities. Samsung’s CSR activities provide support for education to stop the transmission of poverty to the future generation, and ensure that everyone has a chance at achieving their dreams. It is also committed to ensuring that preschoolers have access to quality day care, and that primary school students can be exposed to the arts and humanities. While for more advanced students, Samsung is bringing high school and university students together so that high school students can gain tutoring and mentoring, while university students can get extra money for their own schooling.[1] The diagram below shows the basic business model of CSR activities from Samsung Electronics.

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Figure 2 Business Model of CSR activities of Samsung Electronics

[1] From the page of “Ladder of Hope” on Samsung Corporate Citizenship at www.samsunglove.co.kr/eng/csr/ladder.do, accessed on October 17th, 2015

[1] From the page of What is Corporate Social Responsibility? on www.csrinpractice.com/what-is-csr/, accessed on October 16th, 2015

[2] From the page of Corporate Social Responsibility Can Be Profitable on www.stlouisfed.org/publications/regional-economist/april-2009/corporate-social-responsibility-can-be-profitable, accessed on October 16th, 2015

[3] From the page of Benefits of Corporate Social Responsibility on www.sustainablebusinesstoolkit.com/benefits-of-corporate-social-responsibility/, accessed on October 16th, 2015

[4] From the page of “About Giving at Microsoft” in Microsoft Corporate Citizenship on http://www.microsoft.com/about/corporatecitizenship/en-us/serving-communities/employee-giving/, accessed on October 14th, 2015

[5] Fontaine, Michael. 2013. Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability: The New Bottom Line? United States: International Journal of Business and Social Science. p. 114, 115

[6] Kaplan, Steven N. 2012. Executive Compensation and Corporate Governance in the U.S.: Perceptions, Facts and Challenges. Chicago: Fama-Miller Center for Research in Finance

[7] McCarthy, Daniel J. Corporate Governance in Russia. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 22, 23. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.id at October 17th, 2015

[8] From the page of “Corporate Governance: Structure of Gazprom Neft’s Governing Bodies” on Gazprom Neft: Annual Report 2011 at ar2011.gazprom-neft.ru/eng/corporate_governance/, accessed on October 17th, 2015

[9] 2012. Supplier CSR. Samsung Electronics Sustainability Report 2012. Samsung 2012 Supplier CSR FINAL pdf. p.46, 47

Indonesia policies in implementing the Paris Agreement’s 4 core aspects

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In order to celebrate the Earth Day every year on April 22nd, it is necessary for everyone around the world to take care of our earth’s environment with any kind of action, such as no littering anymore or holding social event of planting thousands of tree on each year. Even though those actions only give little impacts (positively), for all the people around the world to do so obviously eventually turn out as a big contribution to save our earth. Not only from the society, but the government in every country along with the international organizations also give their efforts on saving the earth from any kind of threat that could destroy the nature, for instances are the rise of pollution (e.g. air, water and sound pollution) or the climate change. One of the actions taken by the government around the world to solve those problems was by cooperating with other countries to sign in the Paris Agreement which was held on December 2015 and the second phase of the agreement on April 22nd, 2016. This agreement was organized by the United Nations through the UN Summit which attended by more than 140 countries around the world to solve the climate change issue which has becoming worst and brings negative impacts both for the nature and the world’s society. Even though it cannot solve all kind of environmentally-related problems, this agreement is hugely significant since it represents nearly every country in the world by saying that this is a big issue and they must do critical actions to decline the impact of the global warming and climate change. And one of those countries who involved is Indonesia.

After agreeing to involve and participate for solving the climate change issue through the Paris Agreement, the Indonesian government has considered that environmental security must be prioritized in one of the country’s national interests. And in order to achieve those interests, the government has been started to take out particular policies related to the issue in national/sub-national, regional and global scale.

As an archipelago country, Indonesia is considered as one of several countries in the world which is vulnerable for the climate change. It is caused by both of its geographic and demographic condition, where geographically Indonesia has wide coastal area, along with its vast marine and forestry ecosystems. Adding with its overcrowded population, it is possible that there will be an imbalance between its overcapacity population with limited natural resources availability in the future, which then making natural disasters to happen every year (e.g. the flood, forest fire and an earthquake) caused by high level of emission coming from the climate change. That is why it is necessary for Indonesia to involve on the Paris Agreement.

As for the further actions for the implementation of the Paris Agreement which then has been ratified on COP 21 by the UNFCCC in Paris on April 22nd last year, Indonesian government has taken out the country’s national interests and its policies related to the issue which must be prioritized from now on in order to achieve its emission reduction target and environmental degradation up to 2025. Those are also necessary in order to fulfil their efforts for applying several aspects or elements that comes from the agreement, where the elements are in terms of the mitigation, adaptation from loss and damage, funding/technology transfer/capacity building and transparency. Based on the statement coming from the Indonesian government through the country’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) official website, the national interests of the Republic of Indonesia related to the climate change issue in responding to the Paris Agreement are maintaining the country’s marine and forestry ecosystem preservation, giving support and efforts in terms of adaptation aspect which coming from the Paris Agreement related to the environmental situation in Indonesia that vulnerable with the climate change, developing the common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR) and respective capabilities (RC) principles and also implementing Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation activities along with the sustainable forest management (REDD Plus) which considered as another incentive from the developed countries.

In order to achieve its national interests, the Indonesian government has taken out some policies in solving the issue which then supported by some programs which planned to be held in the future. In the national/sub-national scale, Indonesian government has taken out an emission reduction policy which means they will commit in reducing emission by 29% up to 2030 under the Business as Usual (BAU) and up to 41% with international support. This policy has been stated by the government of Indonesia in 2015 which then considered as part of the country’s NDC (Nationally Determined Contribution) by involving several sectors such as from the energy, agriculture, land-use, land-use change and forestry and also from waste sector. With the coordination of those sectors along with the involvement of non-state actors, the government also has planned to launch some programs related to the policy. The first program will be the Ownership and The Ministry, Local Government and Legislative Body Commitment Development Program. With this program, the local government and legislative bodies especially can pay more attention towards the regional economy, social and ecosystem rationality on each province and regency/city on every region in Indonesia, so they can guarantee that the emission reduction commitment also reflecting their commitment in developing the welfare of the society. Then there will be also enabling environment program, where this program will be divided into several parts such as strengthening the institutional bodies in order to manage the watershed (DAS), the strategic environmental assessment (KLHS), the national energy policy (KEN), the electricity procurement business plan (RUPTL), the General Planning for National Energy (RUEN), the regional energy plans (RUED) and the preparation of Indonesia’s National Strategy for Sustainable Development. The next one if capacity development program where it will be focusing more on strengthening the institution bodies and human resources capacity for instance is calculating the sectoral/regional emission level. And the last one is Emission of Greenhouse Gasses One Data Policy Program where all of the data and information related to the problem must be arranged, collected and communicated with some parties which are managed centrally and singularly.

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Specifically, Indonesian government also has started to give priority in reducing the emission in agriculture and forestry sectors by conducting peat management mitigation efforts. Aside from that, the government also will try to extend the moratorium policy which covering not only the primary forests and peatlands but also secondary forests.

While on bilateral and regional scales, Indonesia also has conducted bilateral cooperation with several countries in energy sector (both from the state and non-state actors) such as with the United States, European countries and other ASEAN countries in emission reduction cause by the climate change. From the United States, the government of both countries has established executive (entrepreneurs) exchange program which sponsored by the USAID as part of their support in developing renewable energy in Indonesia as part of the solution in reducing the emission from climate change. Besides the US, the French government also showed its support on the policy by signing several business agreements between entrepreneurs from both countries in terms of business cooperation for improving renewable energy sector in Indonesia. There was also an agreement that had been signed and dealt by French government and 40 businessmen on their commitment to plant their investment at least US$2.6 billion or Rp34.5 trillion, where part of it goes for renewable energy sector. The agreement was made during state visit of French President Francois Hollande to Indonesia on Wednesday, March 29th 2017. As from the UK, its prime minister and Indonesian government had made a cooperation in conducting a research about renewable energy resources by providing financial aid around 14.5 million pound sterling or Rp250 billion for the research itself. The research would involve some of Indonesia’s famed universities and institutions (e.g. ITB, IPB, University of Indonesia and Padjajaran University) along with several famed colleges in England like the Oxford University. Then, another opportunity to support Indonesia’s renewable energy policy was coming from Swedish government. The government of both countries has made a deal to sign MoU in developing renewable energy business sector in Indonesia, mainly in terms of hydropower and wind energy resources. The implementation of both countries’ cooperation could be seen from the construction of biogas-fueled power (PLTBg) plants in 2015 which located in Palu, South Sulawesi. While on the regional scale, Indonesia has been showing its involvement on solving the climate change issue by participating and becomes a member of ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze with the purpose is to solve the forest fire issue.

And on the global scale, the president of the Republic of Indonesia together with the president of United States, the French president, Indian prime minister and the leader from other 16 countries in the world has cooperated in launching Mission Innovation which considered as part of their global partnership platform which also has been supported by 19 countries in order to encourage the development of clean energy initiative.

The uniqueness of Japan’s school educational system regulations that can be a good sample for Indonesia

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Sometimes we always find the uniqueness of education system or its regulations on some countries. Because as we know, the education system which is applied in every school must be kept being developed positively in order to build the society’s characters inside a nation. Aside from that, with the existence of good qualities education system, it will affect qualities of human resources in order to develop their countries into more prosperous in the future as well. We can take Japan country as an example. As one of developed countries in the world, we already knew and can say that the quality of Japan’s education system is as good as in other developed countries. It is no wonder that the Japanese people’s strong characters which are famous for being discipline, hardworking and independent resulted from their strict education system. Even some of those regulations considered as unique and rare to be found on some schools in other countries, especially in Indonesia. The points below explain about Japan’s school regulations that considered as good sample worth to be applied in Indonesia:

  1. Cleaning off the school environment started on the elementary school for the Japanese students is a must

In Japan, every student on the school is obliged to be capable in cleaning off their own classrooms and the closet by themselves started from elementary school. The purpose of this regulation is to encourage them to keep working together with each other, sharing their responsibilities and to grow the feeling of ownership on every facility on their school. Usually the students are divided into several groups to do the chores, such as to sweep the floor, cleaning off the windows, the closet and others. So don’t be surprised if you come to one of the school in Japan and never found a cleaning service staff of gardener inside it.

  1. Taking part as school canteen staff during the lunch time

Commonly every school in Japan applied a system where all teachers and students must have lunch together at their school canteen, where most of the staff are also some of the students on the school. Every day during lunch time they always have their turns to serve the food for both the teacher and other students

  1. Bringing or playing smartphone and other electronic devices to the school is not prohibited

Most of us maybe already know that Japan is considered as one of other developed countries in inventing advancing technology devices. However, despite of that, each school in Japan have a regulation which stating that every student is strictly prohibited to bring their own smartphone or other electronic devices to the school. This rule is taken out in order to put all of the student to focus more for studying and on the same time to get rid of the social hierarchy inside the school between the rich and poor ones

  1. In Japan there would be no examination for students during their first three years in the school

The regulation to not giving examination test until on their fourth grade is because in Japan, they prefer to prioritize on giving morality lesson first towards the student before knowledge. Based on their culture, the Japanese people put their attention first to the student about the morality before focusing to teach them about the academic ones. That way, the student’s characters or morality can thrive positively by showing their respects both for other students and their teachers or parents

The implementation of Russian Federation’s coercive diplomacy towards Ukraine in the new great game context over gas pipeline dispute (2006-2009)

Introduction

The concern about Energy Security has been always becoming the most important and heated discussion in international politics even until today. Although the issue that related to this aspect was always happening from time to time, flashing across our media electronic such as in television, internet and newspaper columns, it is still really difficult for some scholars to find and explain how the concept of energy security will be kept in line with the reality of our modern life. This considered as the evidence that energy security is categorized as one of the ambiguous, abstract and complex term in the world politics, which its characters always change overtime (Yergin 2011).

Barton defines energy security as “a condition in which nation and all, or most, of its citizens and businesses have access to sufficient energy resources at reasonable prices for the foreseeable future, free from risk of major disruption or service.”(Barton, 2004). There are some important elements that could be elaborated from this definition. The first one is related to the sufficiency of resources. It means that the availability of physical energy resources is not only coming from fossil fuels (e.g. oil, gas and coal), but also could be from non-fossil ones (e.g. renewable energy resources or nuclear energy). With plurality of resources, it is possible for every state to implement what it calls as the diversification of energy resources.

The second element is referring to the price that should have to be “reasonable”. It means that wiith the character of energy security that always dynamic, there will be a time where change of energy price and scarcity of energy supplies can happen in the future and eventually will bring negative impact towards the rate of society’s prosperity within certain countries that regularly always use lot of energy resources. The last element refers to the risk of major disruption in public services of a country if energy security of particular state is being threatened, where its society is considering energy itself as their primary needs due to the scarcity of energy resources. On the next section, there will be a further research of Russian government roles in energy security in Ukraine, which back then focused only in economic and business matters changed into a form Russia’s politicization of energy supply in Ukraine as part of its coercive diplomacy actions. After introducing this issue briefly, it will be elaborated more on case study section in order to apply independent variable  within the central issue in the next section.

Coercive Diplomacy and The New Great Game Theory

For analyzing and explaining further about the core problem within this case, it would be started with understanding a significant theory and certain concepts as interconnection of the theory itself. The most significant theory on explaining this case would be coming from Coercive Diplomacy and The New Great Game. However, before elaborating this theory, we should have to know first the basic term of securitization of energy issues which considers as a crucial point within the study of International Relations.

In terms of securitization of energy issues, the main problem of the securitization process itself is coming from finding the exact securitizing actor who represents the existential threat within energy issues. It implies hat the relevant securitizing actors in energy security are mostly depending on who is speaking about the related issues first (Roberts, 2004). As for existential threat that coming from energy security, it could be defined based on a perspective of Paul Roberts:

“A failure of energy security means that the momentum of industrialization and modernity grinds to a halt, and survival itself become far less certain. (Roberts 2004)

This means that when those of securitizing actors in energy security are facing certain challenges such as lacking of infrastructures on finding energy resources in certain areas or losing the capability on maintaining their energy supplies for public services, those challenges are considered as their threats. That is why they need to take out a decision on solving those threats.

Then there is an understanding of coercive diplomacy conception. Coercive diplomacy is a diplomatic strategy aiming to achieve political objectives within one state and fostering its national interest without waging a war. This is a strategy on using the threat of force instead of applying full – scale of military actions in order to make the state’s target complying with its demand. This political-diplomatic strategy is also being enforced for persuading its target to back down and stopping an action already conducted which considered could bring the conflict into a state of war. [1]

However, as the antithesis of Ilario Schettino statement above, in my opinion Coercive Diplomacy is obviously considered as part of diplomatic and defensive strategy. We can see on the application of the strategy itself that in diplomacy part, coercer state applies its demands towards particular state (that is considered as a target state) through conducting a meeting or making several contracts and agreements which containing about those demands as a form of both countries’ negotiation. And then, in defensive part, while taking out several demands towards the targeted state, coercer state on the same time employing threats (whether those threats are being limited or not) in the form of punishments or sanctions for making this target state to stopping its actions that totally against coercer state’s preferences or undo the action that already conducted by target state which already gave benefits on its coercer one without putting up any kind of non-compliance or resistance. That is why even though in one time the coercer state will arrange agreements or contracts as part of its negotiation with its targeted state, after that the coercer state will giving particular threats towards its target as part of its use of force (conducting violation but does not mean to apply a full scale of military actions) if its target giving countermeasures back until this target state comply with what coercer state prefers for.

There are two (2) types of extreme “variants” or methods on applying coercive diplomatic strategy: [1]

  1. Try-and-see approach
  2. Ultimatum approach (consists of 3 components, they are demand, threat and time pressure)

The use of these two variants could shift from one into another by policymakers depends on a state’s implementation to each step it has taken. As for the first approach, it will be used when a coercer state takes one threatening step in one moment, waiting for its target’s reaction before imposing additional threats without setting time limitation. However, for the second one, it consists of three processes, such as a demand, a threat and time pressure. [2]

Thus, even though the coercive diplomacy is categorized as a diplomatic strategy by using threat of force, the fact is that it also has the goal for preventing a war and to achieve a global peace.

In terms of The New Great Game context, it is considered by Duarter in 2012 as a competition on the importance of geopolitics of energy in some of Eurasia countries, whose the main players for this game have been added with the involvement of non-state actors and resulted in an establishment of new natural gas pipeline, LNG tanker route, oil consortium, and a new signed agreement (Duarte, 2012). Those states which competing each other within the new great game context are mostly coming from United States and its NATO allies against Russia along with its state monopoly companies for gaining a new political hegemony in Eurasia region, particularly in Commontwealth of Independent States’ (CIS) space.

Based on the hierarchical level of analysis in terms of main players within the new game as what Boris Rumer has stated, the major powers which are involving within the game could be considered as first level of analysis, while for secondary ones are coming from those Eurasian countries (mostly from Central Asia, Slavic Union and Caucasus region) since they are also having their own ambition and interest in a regional level. As from non-state actors, they are being considered as parts of the second level of analysis which then divided into the supra – State (e.g. NATO, UN, OSCE, etc) and the infra – State categories (e.g. NGOs, MNCs, terrorist groups, criminal organizations, etc) (Boris Rumer, 2005).

Russia’s Coercive Diplomacy Implementation towards Ukraine in Responding Orange Revolution

The cause of why gas conflict between Russia and Ukraine happened in the early 2006 can be seen chronologically based on the biggest event that happened 11 years ago in Ukraine which still coming into the mind of people in several states of post-Soviet space and the West countries. After mass protests happened between Ukrainian society who were supporting Yanukovych (pro-Russia government) and Yushchenko (pro-Western government), the third round of Ukraine’s presidential election in 2004 resulted with people elected Viktor Yushchenko as the country’s first president where they considered him could enlighten the dark age of Ukraine’s state system under authorization of Russia as the dominant country in post-Soviet space.

The Ukrainian people also considered this election as the first time where the real democratic system and transparency become visible in more than several years of Ukrainian history. The mass protests in Ukraine eventually had led into the existence of reformist coalition power under Yushchenko which called as Orange Revolution. Unfortunately, the result of choosing Yushchenko as the President of Ukraine at that time started to worry Russia, since it means that the opportunity to implement its political influence as a major power country in Eurasia region, particularly in post-Soviet space would be disappeared. [1]

The revolution in Ukraine bviously brought a threat for Russia’s national interests along with its national identity inside Ukrainian country. Not only that, the biggest threat that Russian government faced at that time was related to the effect of revolution itself, where eventually the change of political system under Russia’s government structure umbrella could trigger several countries in CIS space to conduct “color revolution” as well, such as like “Rose Revolution” that happened in Georgia in 2003 or “Tulip Revolution” in Kyrgyzstan in 2015. (Herd, 2011).

Later, on December 31 in 2005, Russian President Vladimir Putin gave statements on the national television that he would give the last chance for Ukraine until midnight to accept his offers by ordering Gazprom, as the biggest gas national company that controlled by Russian Government to keep selling its subsidized gas to the country until in the end of March, as long as Ukraine agreed to pay it in European market level prices started from April and beyond. However, Yushchenko refused the Russian offer by saying that Putin’s offer considered as “economic pressure”. Thus, started on January 1 in 2006, Russia conducted a total shutdown of its natural gas supplies for Ukraine and Western European countries by reducing the flow of its gas initially from 20% into 0% for the next four days (until 4 January 2006). [2] During the crisis, Gazprom accused Ukraine that the declining of gas supplies to its customers was coming from         the country’s gas siphoned off 100 million cubic meters that should have distributed for its EU costumers; while from Ukrainian side, the decline of gas volumes to EU was –no other than due to– Russia’s pressure towards Ukraine for still not agreeing to pay the supplies with high prices. Aside from that, in terms of Ukraine’s embezzle action towards Russian gas supplies, based on both countries’ annual contracts it was already stated that Ukraine has its rights for taking 15% of Russia’s gas which is crossing Ukraine’s territory for delivering it to European countries as barter transit payment from Russia for being allowed to use Ukraine’s GTS. (Jonathan, 2006). But Russia denied Ukraine’s statements and kept perceiving Ukraine as a gas “theft”. In order to solve the case, in January 2 Gazprom took its responsibility by pumping additional 95 million of cubic meters  everyday to EU countries as a part of compensation on the gas that Ukraine had taken (Jonathan, 2006).

Since the long – term gas dispute between both countries would be difficult to be solved, Ukraine then tried to diversify its gas stocks from another gas – producer country. Thus, during the year of the dispute, Ukraine would fulfill the country’s gas needs by importing 40bn cubic meters of gas from Turkmenistan. that The gas was distributed throughout pipelines crossing Russia as what (it) had been dealt on with Turkmen president Saparmurat Niyazov on December 23 in 2005 at price around $50 – $60. However, with Russia’s gas policy which also wanted to increase its own purchases towards Turkmen’s gas by readying (willing) to pay in a higher price (around $65) based on signed agreement between both parties on December 29. It made the Turkmenistan government to announce Ukraine that the contract between both countries was no longer valid due to Turkmenistan’s distrust towards Ukraine which still could not pay its gas debts for the country (Simon, 2007). It was obvious that Russia during that time tried to improve its efforts on reducing and preventing –the gas supply deliveries from– other countries come to Ukraine, which make the possibility for Ukraine to gain large amount of gas volumes aside from Russia will be smaller than what it had expected.

However, even though the agreement that had been made by Gazprom, RosUkrEnergo and Naftogaz Ukrainy (as two biggest national gas companies controlled by Ukrainian Government) to solve gas dispute between these two countries stated that Ukraine would gain its gas demands from both Central Asian countries and Russia, in fact on two days after the deal has been agreed it was confirmed that in 2006 Ukraine would not receive any of gas imports from Russia. Consequently, (which means that 56 bcm of Ukraine’s gas imports were mostly coming from Central Asia only). It could be seen on October 2006 Ukraine had applying its remarks by announcing that the country had signed contracts with Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan to gain 58 bcm of gas from these countries, and with this reason, Ukraine would not purchase its gas supplies from Russia anymore started in 2007 (states by Yuriy Boiko, the Ukraine’s fuel and energy minister). But it could not be avoided that in the end the process of gas imports from Central Asia countries to Ukraine should have to involve Russian presence, which controlled by Gazprom. Thus, starting on December 4 in 2007, Gazprom chairman along with fuel and energy minister of Ukraine eventually had made an agreement to accept a new gas import price with a price around $179.5 which would be set up in 2008 in Russian and Ukrainian territorial boundaries.

Based on the case of Russia and Ukraine hostile bilateral relations during Gas Dispute in 2006 until 2009, Russia at that time used “Try and See” method by taking out several demands towards Ukraine such as asking for pay Ukrainian gas debts along with paying its gas imports in normal price (based on European gas market levels which was measured around US$260-US$230). Aside from that, Russia also asked for Ukraine to take responsibility over disappearance of gas supplies which supposed to be exported to Western European countries through applying limited threat which stating that Russia would reduce its gas supplies to Ukraine into 20%. However, after that Ukraine did a counterreaction towards Russia by giving statement that it would not responsible on the disappearance of Russia’s gas supply, rejected to sign the contract that containing about the change of the country’s payment on Russian gas exports with Gazprom and instead strengthening its ties with the West (particularly towards NATO and EU) as part of Ukraine’s resistance to comply with Russia’s demands. After that, Russia then took out a further step by applying Ultimatum method through taking out specific demands and put all of those demands from standard ones (e.g. paying debts) into intermediate level (controlling over part of target state’s territory) with time limitation for target state to reply on all of those demands. On this case, Russia then took out its specified demands from asking to pay Ukraine’s gas imports in normal level into a demand for handling over the control of Russia’s Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol Port and its city in Crimea to Russia, and Ukraine was having its chance to reply on the demands until around midnight on December 31, 2005. But still, Ukraine, particularly from Viktor Yushchenko, rejected the demands stated by Vladimir Putin by saying that Russia conducted “economic pressure” towards Ukraine, given economic downturn that still happened at that time inside Ukraine. On the day after tomorrow, Russia then started to apply its coercive measures which considered as the form of Russia’s punishments through cutting its gas supplies into 0% towards Ukraine and EU countries from January 1 until January 4th in 2006, making sure Russia always get involve on gas export activities that coming from Central Asia countries to Ukraine and conducting annexation over Crimea in order to protect and support its compatriots within the disputed areas due to the Ukrainian stance for keep rejecting its agreement for extending Russia’s BSF presence in Sevastopol and Crimea, where during this period also both countries still have major confrontation from social ethnic and political groups upon the sovereignty of Sevastopol city and Crimea.

Conclusion

After explaining about the component of Russia’s implementation on its coercive diplomacy actions towards Ukraine, it can be explained that asymmetrical condition was happened between both countries during that time. It means that even though Ukraine made its “counteractions” to Russia by keep improving its relations with the West, in fact there was no balance of power between Russia and Ukraine on this case, particularly in gas resources that included as the vital value for both countries. Theoretically, if asymmetrical situation is happened between state A and state B as state A’s rival (when state A is conducting its coercive diplomacy actions towards state B as target state), it would be possible that bilateral relationship between state A and state B will be more complicated in the future, and even it will turn out into “the state of conflict/war” due to the failure of state A on stopping an action that already conducted by state B which against state A’s preferences to achieve global peace. Thus, it will be possible that Russia and Ukraine will face an intense conflict escalation which eventually will turn into the state of war in continuing both countries’ long-term dispute in gas sector.

References :

[1] Varol, Tugce. 2013. The Russian Foreign Energy Policy. Republic of Macedonia: EGALITE. p. 283,284,289.

[2] Stern, Jonathan(2006). The Russian – Ukrainian gas crisis of January 2006. Oxford Institute of Energy Studies. p. 8, 9

[1] From the page of “Essentials of Coercive Diplomacy” in Coercive Diplomacy-Integral Element of Diplomatic Negotiations, from https://feeltheworldarch.wordpress.com/2012/10/03/coercive-diplomacy/. Retrieved at September 23rd, 2015. Reprinted with permission

[2] Jakobsen. Western Use of Coercive Diplomacy after Cold War. p. 29

[1] Article of E-IR Page written by Ilario Schettino. Is Coercive Diplomacy a Viable Means to Achieve Political Objectives? Retrieved from http://www.e-ir.info/2009/06/29/is-coercive-diplomacy-a-viable-means-to-achieve-political-objectives/ on September 23rd, 2015